June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 187 days remaining until the end of the year. 1844 – Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, and his brother Hyrum Smith, are murdered by a mob at the Carthage, Illinois jail. 1893 - The New York stock market crashed. By the end of the year 600 banks and 74 railroads had gone out of business. 1895 – The inaugural run of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad's Royal Blue from Washington,D.C., to New York, New York, the first U.S. passenger train to use electric locomotives. 1923 – Capt. LowellH. Smith and Lt. John P. Richter perform the first ever aerial refueling in a DH-4B biplane 1927 - The U.S. Marines adopted the English bulldog as their mascot. 1931 - Igor Sikorsky filed U.S. Patent 1,994,488,which marked the break through in helicopter technology. 1942 - The FBI announced the capture of eight Nazi saboteurs who had been put ashore from a submarine on New York's Long Island. 1950 – The United States decides to send troops to fight in the Korean War. 1967 - Two hundred people were arrested during a race riot in Buffalo, NY. 1973 - Former White House counsel John W. Dean told the Senate Watergate Committee about an "enemies list" that was kept by the Nixon White House. 1982 – Space Shuttle Columbia launched from the Kennedy Space Center on the final research and development flight mission, STS-4. 1985 – The U.S. Route 66 is closed 2005 - In Alaska's Denali National Park, a roughly 70-million year old dinosaur track was discovered. The track was form a three-toed Cretaceous period dinosaur. Today is Helen Keller Day (United States) Today is National HIV Testing Day (United States) Today is National Orange Blossom Day!